Expanding crimmigration: The detention and deportation of New Zealanders from Australia:
The significant concept of ‘crimmigration’ has evolved to explain how criminal and immigration laws have begun to merge, expanding state powers to surveil, control and punish. States use crimmigration processes to reinforce cultural, political and moral boundaries. In doing so, states frequently dis...
|In:||The Australian and New Zealand journal of criminology
Year: 2018, Volume: 51, Issue: 4, Pages: 519-536
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|Summary:||The significant concept of ‘crimmigration’ has evolved to explain how criminal and immigration laws have begun to merge, expanding state powers to surveil, control and punish. States use crimmigration processes to reinforce cultural, political and moral boundaries. In doing so, states frequently displace principles of punishment or rights in favour of promoting compliance, security or belonging. In relation to the case of New Zealanders detained-deported from Australia, this article illustrates new forms of crimmigration. First, crimmigration is expanding in a context of neoliberal responsibilization. Given the gradual removal of economic supports or political inclusion, ‘non-citizens’ share a deeply precarious space, and more groups are being made ‘at risk’ of crimmigration interventions. Once likely to focus upon certain populations, especially on ‘race’ or nationality grounds, crimmigration now engages all ‘non-citizens’. Second, crimmigration has expanded to include pre-emption - ‘non-citizens’ are targeted not just on account of their criminal behaviours but also their perceived associations, ‘risky’ behaviours or suspicious associations. Finally, and third, crimmigration strategies have expanded across borders, in ways that fundamentally distort established legal principles on the ever-shifting grounds of security. The contagion of crimmigration creates multiple punishments for ‘non-citizens’ that far surpass the nature of their offending or their ‘risk’ to society.|